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Image from page 102 of “Farm echoes” (1881)
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Identifier: farmechoes00star
Title: Farm echoes
Year: 1881 (1880s)
Authors: Starr, F. Ratchford (Frederick Ratchford), 1821-1889
Subjects:
Publisher: New York, Orange Judd company
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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und by a written contract, duly signed and witnessed,to observe all the regulations deemed necessary to securethe best and purest milk, and from Jersey cows (fre-quently called Alderneys ), so soon as the change from*native cows can be effected. To prevent the possi-bility of mistake or fraud, the services of a medical gen-tleman of high professional standing have been securedto test the milk from every herd, my own as well as theothers to which I have referred, also the milk of eachand every cow in all these herds. These tests are mostthoroughly made, and a full written report of all is givenme. The effect of this frequent and searching profes-sional investigation has been most beneficial, and thefarmers, who at first stood in no little dread of it, nowfully realize the decided advantage it is to them. Everycow that has not given satisfaction has been promptlydisposed of by them, and there is now a healthy rivalry—an esprit de corps—among them, just such as I have FAEM ECHOES. 97

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TESTING QUALITY OF MILK. 98 FARM ECHOES. been desirous to create, one which is producing muchgood to themselves, and which confers a benefit upon alarger number of city families than could otherwise bereached, and vastly greater than they have any idea of.I have offered a premium to the farmer who, by the doc-tors report, has the best record at the end of a certainspecified time. All the milk sent from this farm (except such as isknown as special, being always from the same cow, andwanted for invalids and infants) is put into a largetank, made at an expense of several hundred dollars, be-cause constructed of the best and purest materials. Afterbeing sufiiciently cooled in this tank, which is surroundedby iced water so as to extract the animal heat as quicklyas possible, the milk is drawn, twenty bottles being filledat the same time, through as many nickel-plated faucets.It is only in this way that consumers can have milk ofunvarying quality. Every precaution that can be thoughtof is t

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Image from page 405 of “The essential facts of Oklahoma history and civics” (1914)
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Identifier: essentialfactsof00robe
Title: The essential facts of Oklahoma history and civics
Year: 1914 (1910s)
Authors: Roberts, Charles Henry, 1861-
Subjects:
Publisher: Chicago, New York [etc.] B. H. Sanborn & Co.
Contributing Library: The Library of Congress
Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

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thus ultimatelybe paid by the person who purchases the goods. Another source of federal revenue is found inthe excise duties on luxuries like tobacco, liquor,and beer. This tax is originally paid by the man-ufacturer of the article, but he adds it to the price,so that ultimately the consumer has to pay it. Smuggling. — The government not only has toprovide for the collection of these taxes, but itmust protect itself against fraud. Some personswould like to import merchandise without pay-ing the lawful import tax. The government musttherefore patrol the coasts of our country withrevenue cutters to prevent smuggling. Whenpeople coming from abroad enter a port like NewYork, their baggage will be examined by customofficers to ascertain whether it contains any goodsupon which a tax should be paid. It is not TAXATION 129 pleasant to have ones baggage turned upsidedown and inside out by a stranger. Yet in someway the government must collect its duties andprotect itself against imposition.

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United States Custom House, Seattle Forms of Taxation. — The money needed bystate and local governments for rendering serviceto the public is collected through various forms oftaxation. There is a tax on land and buildingsfrom which the largest amount of revenue is ob-tained. There is a general property tax paid uponall property not of the nature of real estate.This tax does not bring in a large amount, becausepeople usually do not pay upon all the property 130 CIVIL GOVERNMENT they really possess. Some even go so far as de-liberately to conceal from the state what propertythey have. This is dishonest, and in no way betterthan cheating a private person. In some states there are taxes on property whichone gives away by will. When a person dies,leaving property, the state collects a certain per-centage of it for its own use. If the property goesto the widow or the children of the deceased person,the percentage collected is usually smaller thanwhen it goes to distant relatives. Of cour

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